La malattia da virus Ebola, nota anche come febbre emorragica da virus Ebola, è una malattia grave, spesso fatale, con un tasso di mortalità che arriva al 90 %. La malattia colpisce gli uomini e i primati (scimmie, gorilla, scimpanzé).

L’Ebola è apparsa la prima volta nel 1976 in due focolai contemporanei dei quali uno in un villaggio nei pressi del fiume Ebola nel Congo da dove prende il nome. L’origine del virus non è nota, ma i probabili ospiti del virus Ebola sono considerati i pipistrelli della frutta.

Nel uomo l’Ebola si trasmette attraverso lo stretto contatto con sangue, secrezioni, tessuti, organi o fluidi corporei di animali infetti. In Africa, l’infezione è avvenuta attraverso la manipolazione degli scimpanzé, gorilla, pipistrelli della frutta, scimmie, antilopi di foresta e istrici infetti trovati malati o morti o catturati nella foresta pluviale. Nelle zone a rischio (foresta pluviale dell’Africa Sub-sahariana) è importante ridurre il contatto con gli animali ad alto rischio, non raccogliere animali morti trovati nelle foreste o manipolare la loro carne cruda.

Una volta che l’uomo e entrato in contatto con un animale infetto da virus Ebola può contrattare l’infezione, e questa può diffondersi all’interno della comunità da persona a persona. L’infezione avviene per contatto diretto (attraverso ferite della pelle o mucose) con il sangue o altri fluidi corporei o secrezioni (feci, urine, saliva, sperma) di persone infette. L’infezione può verificarsi anche in caso di ferite della pelle o delle mucose di una persona sana che entra in contatto con oggetti contaminati da fluidi infetti di un paziente con Ebola, quali vestiti e biancheria da letto sporchi dei fluidi infetti o aghi usati.

Gli operatori sanitari sono stati spesso i più esposti al virus durante la cura dei pazienti con Ebola. Questo accade perché, in particolare nelle prime fasi di un epidemia, non indossano dispositivi di protezione individuale (ad esempio i guanti) quando assistono i pazienti. Gli operatori sanitari di tutti i livelli del sistema sanitario – ospedali, cliniche e centri sanitari – delle aree a rischio dovrebbero essere informati, prima possibile, sulla natura della malattia, sulle modalità di trasmissione e seguire rigorosamente le precauzioni raccomandate per prevenire l’infezione.

Possono svolgere un ruolo nella trasmissione di Ebola anche le cerimonie funebri in cui le persone hanno contatti diretti con il corpo del defunto. Le persone decedute per Ebola, infatti, devono essere maneggiate con indumenti protettivi e guanti ed essere sepolte immediatamente.

Le persone sono contagiose fino a quando il sangue e le secrezioni contengono il virus. Per questo motivo, per evitare di infettare chiunque altro nella comunità, i pazienti infetti devono essere attentamente monitorati dai medici e sottoposti a test di laboratorio, per garantire che il virus non sia più in circolo, prima del loro ritorno a casa. Gli uomini, guariti dalla malattia, possono ancora trasmettere il virus a partner attraverso lo sperma, per un massimo di sette settimane dopo la guarigione. Per questo motivo è importante per gli uomini evitare rapporti sessuali per almeno sette settimane dopo la guarigione oppure indossare il preservativo nei rapporti sessuali durante le sette settimane dopo la guarigione.

Il virus Ebola viene ucciso facilmente da sapone, candeggina, luce solare o asciugatura. Il lavaggio in lavatrice di indumenti contaminati da liquidi è sufficiente a distruggere il virus Ebola. Il virus Ebola sopravvive solo per breve tempo su superfici esposte alla luce solare o secche.

Gli operatori sanitari che trattano pazienti con malattia sospetta o confermata sono a più alto rischio di infezione rispetto agli altri gruppi.

In aggiunta alle precauzioni standard di assistenza sanitaria gli operatori devono:

-applicare rigorosamente le misure raccomandate per il controllo delle infezioni ed evitare l’esposizione a sangue infetto, fluidi o ambienti o oggetti contaminati, come la biancheria sporca dei liquidi biologici di un paziente o gli aghi usati

-utilizzare dispositivi di protezione individuale come camici monouso, guanti, maschere e occhiali o visiere
-non riutilizzare i dispositivi di protezione o indumenti a meno che non siano stati correttamente disinfettati
-cambiare i guanti dopo ogni operazione di assistenza ad un caso sospetto/confermato di Ebola
-effettuare procedure invasive che possono esporre medici, infermieri ed altri all’infezione nel rispetto di rigorose condizioni di sicurezza
-tenere separati i pazienti infetti dagli altri pazienti e dalle persone sane.

Fonte: aresemergenza.it

Dati estratti dal sito del Ministero della Salute

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